City twinning affects local landscapes and state-relations in Northern Europe
An established form of doing away with the divisive effects of bordersThe paper probes four cases on city twinning, all located in Northern Europe. In doing so, it also discusses the dynamics and future of twinning in a broader, more principal as well as critical perspective. It is noted that although the legacies tend to pertain to the existence of rather divisive borders and despite a number of other obstacles, city twinning has more recently turned into an established form of crossing and doing away with the divisive effects of borders. The model of cities re-imagining their borders, activating them through increased cooperation and pooling resources impacts and changes the local landscapes but has also broader state-related and European consequences. Twinning may conceptually stand out as a misnomer and figure as a problematic representation pertaining to paired border cities, but it nonetheless appears quite hegemonic in terms of the naming and stands out as an approach used by an increasing amount of cities.